Gall mites cause growths or galls to develop on the leaves of red maple trees. Although small in size, these galls can grow in such large numbers that affected leaves curl up. Both of these woody twigs galls on oak look similar, but the horned oak gall has small horns that protrude from around the circumference of the gall (Figs. This gall on an oak leaf (Quercus) looks like an oak flake gall caused by a wasp (Hymenoptera) but dissecting the gall is the only sure way to tell what caused the gall: Galls are abnormal growths that occur on leaves, twigs, or branches. Willow Gall Sawflies – Willow galls can be caused by willow leaf gall sawflies, Pontania pacifica. The aphid Cryptosiphum artemisiae produces, and lives within, large deep red globular leaf galls on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, see first picture below).The adult apterae are almost globular, dark red to brownish black, and powdered with greyish wax (see second picture below). Several types of gall mites attack the red maple, including maple bladder-gall mites and maple spindle-gall mites. Sawfly females insert eggs into young willow leaves, which form a gall at each egg location. Feeding by the aphid causes the formation of conical galls on the upper side of the leaf. Willow sawfly larvae are pale green or yellow and have no legs. Symptoms Initially, infected plant parts show a thickening and then gradually become fleshy in appearance. See the PNW Insect Management Handbook for more information. Small green bumps appear on the tops of silver and red maple leaves, turning bright red. The natives made spoons from it. Mature aphids with wings leave the galls in late spring and early summer and fly to birch. There are certainly a few gall mites that require intervention, such as galls that cause leaf petioles to swell and result in the death of leaves, but spindle gall mites aren’t anything more than an inconvenience. Fortunately, neither of these aphid galls produce significant injury to the overall health of their elm tree host. Infected leaves and flowers thicken into greenish to pinkish galls. They may be simple lumps … Identification & Distribution. The red-wart gall is the sexual phase of the same species. These galls have a long and complex development that takes two or more years to develop. 1 & 2). The leaves of native elms can look a bit bedraggled at this time of the year owing to the rise of pouch-like elm sack galls and the descriptively named elm cockscomb galls. Maple bladder gall is a common example of leaf galls. Preventing most leaf galls is extremely difficult. You’ll even … Figure 2. However, other than being unsightly, most leaf galls are not harming the tree or shrub. How to Treat Spindle Galls. The “red” comes from the wood of the Borbonia, which has a reddish luster and is prized in woodworking such as for interior finishing and boat interiors. An aphid (Manzanita leaf fall aphid) causes smaller, red leaf galls. Oddly, one of the identifying characters of the Perseas are leaf galls, see picture above. Each gall, produced by single aphid, later becomes filled with offspring. One adult gall wasp emerges from each of these horns. The gouty oak gall wasp, C. quercuspunctata, develops in the twigs of pin, scarlet, red, and black oaks. These insects are stout wasps with broad waists, either black (males) or brown (females). Horned oak galls can be found on pin, scrub, black, blackjack, and water oaks while gouty oak galls occur on scarlet, red, pin or black oak. The red-pea gall or red currant gall develops as a chemically induced distortion arising from the underside of the mid-rib of a vein on Quercus species and it is attached by a short stalk or peduncle. The first stage is a blister-like leaf gall that occurs along larger leaf veins. This gall is caused by an aphid that passes the winter in eggs laid on twigs of the plant. 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